WHAT IS OBESITY?
Obesity is considered to be a chronic multifactorial disease, characterized by an excess of adipose tissue (fat), which leads to an increase in body weight and an increased risk of suffering from a number of disorders.
A patient is considered obese if they have a body mass index score above 30 (BMI = weight/height²), and as being overweight when they have a score of 25 or more.
This is a very prevalent health problem worldwide. Currently, Mexico has the second highest rate of obesity in the world amongst its adult population, with more than 70% of adults between the ages of 30 and 60 being overweight. Furthermore. Mexico ranks fourth in the rate of child obesity, behind Greece, the USA and Italy.
WHY DO EXCESS WEIGHT AND OBESITY HAVE SUCH A NEGATIVE IMPACT ON HEALTH?
A number of studies carried out in the population show us that both excess weight and obesity decrease life expectancy.
Furthermore, they can lead to a series of pathological conditions such as: diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disorders, digestive disorders, psychological problems and even cancer.
HOW CAN OBESITY LEAD TO DIABETES?
Excess fat causes molecules to be released into the bloodstream, preventing insulin from functioning in the liver. This causes both an increase in hepatic production of glucose, and also an increase in insulin levels. If this continues over time (with no weight loss) the mechanism becomes ineffective, resulting in hyperglycemia and therefore the dreaded diabetes: known as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
We know that the risk of developing diabetes in people who are overweight and obese is greater in women than in men, in fact, women who are overweight are 5 times more likely to develop diabetes, whereas women who are obese are 28 times more likely. Overweight men are twice as likely to develop diabetes, and 7 times more likely if they are obese.
WHAT IS TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS?
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders of diverse etiology characterized by a chronic increase in blood glucose levels.
Type 2 accounts for 90-95% of all cases of diabetes, is usually associated with family history, and is also more frequent in sedentary individuals, older people, women who have suffered from gestational diabetes or polycystic ovarian syndrome, and also certain ethnic groups.
In the long term, it can cause renal, ocular and cardiovascular complications, among others.
HOW CAN A SPECIALIST IN ENDOCRINOLOGY AND NUTRITION HELP?
As specialists, we investigate the possible origin of the disease by means of a series of questions, a physical examination, and specific complementary tests. After that, we initiate a comprehensive treatment based on an adapted and flexible diet therapy, nutritional education and prescription of physical exercise. Where cases require treatment for related diseases, we can treat them, or refer patients to other specialists, prescribe specific medication, or highlight the need for bariatric surgery.