Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the endocrine pathologies that most affect women and is the main cause of infertility. It is therefore essential to detect the condition early on to be able to apply the most effective treatments to achieve better results in patients. Dr. Maria Dolores Perez-Jaraiz, of the Gynecology and Obstetrics Service at Hospiten Rambla University Hospital, explains that the characteristics these patients present are: irregular menstrual cycles lasting 45 days or more or having no periods; increased body hair and acne; alteration of sugar metabolism, obesity or weight gain.
To properly diagnose the disease, a series of medical tests are needed, like a review of the patient’s medical history, the physical examination itself, hormone analysis or ultrasound of the ovaries. The doctor clarifies that "in adolescent patients it is quite normal for menstruation to be irregular for the first three years, so the diagnosis must be made once this phase has ended”.
The first part of treatment for the diagnosis of PCOS is losing weight. So, Dr. Perez-Jaraiz states, "a proper diet and physical exercise are necessary, and that can be complemented with pharmacological treatments to help lose weight". Likewise, "hormone treatments can be used to regulate menstrual cycles and help ovulation or, on the contrary, contraceptives to prevent pregnancy," she explains.
For his part, Dr. Carlos Blanco Soler, gynecologist at Hospiten Roca, points out the relationship between obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome and infertility. “Obesity has a major adverse impact on reproductive outcome. It not only influences a woman’s ability to conceive, but also the response to the fertility treatment she may be offered, increasing the risk of miscarriage, congenital anomalies and complications during pregnancy”.
The doctor also explains that “most patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have metabolic alterations, like insulin resistance with compensatory hyperinsulinemia, obesity and dyslipidemia. Therefore, regardless of the weight of the patient, these parameters should be studied by means of a lipid profile study and a glucose tolerance test”.