Living beings require external elements to satisfy their metabolic needs. These elements are foodstuffs, which contain energy and more than 50 nutrients. Energy is as important as nutrients but, if not consumed, it is stored and can lead to overweight and obesity.
On the other hand, if food intake is restricted to compensate for low energy expenditure, the intake of nutrients is also compromised, although they are essential to a healthy metabolism and, consequently, the body triggers a series of impulses to acquire the necessary nutrients and these can be practically unstoppable.
To close this vicious circle of pathogenesis, it has been observed that energy expenditure is reduced in obese people, since physical exercise is increasingly scarce, as well as thermogenesis and basal metabolism.
In cases of overweight and early obesity, treatment is based on diet and exercise, which is always under medical supervision.
Over certain levels of Body Mass Index (BMI), the recommended treatment is surgical. The efficacy of obesity surgery is very high and depends on the technique applied and the short and long-term follow-up.
Bariatric surgery is the safest, most effective technique for the treatment of morbid obesity above certain levels. It is a very effective surgical procedure and weight reduction is achieved in all cases. But the main objective is long-term metabolic and energy balance, which requires a target weight and medical monitoring of the patient, as well as providing good information and learning for the patient. In addition to achieving a reduction in the patient's weight, the treatment helps achieve the remission of pathologies and complications associated with obesity.
The World Health Organization (WHO) considers obesity an epidemic that causes around three million deaths every year all over the world and in the Canary Islands specifically, 17% of the population are obese to a degree surgery would be indicated.
Obesity is a major health problem that affects humanity on a global scale. The origin of the problem lies in the fact that our current lifestyles have changed to a point that, in general, leisure and work are more intellectual than physical, and the contribution of exogenous, or external, energy prevents the consumption of one's own energy. It is a disease that arises from improper management of the body’s energy.
Bariatric or obesity surgery modifies the digestive system so that, for a limited time, the energy balance is negative and accumulated fat deposits are burned off.
There are several surgical techniques and the choice of the most appropriate for each patient must always be indicated by a specialist.
The gastric bypass technique is the most effective in achieving a better quality of life for the patient and lasting long-term results. The technique is also effective in eliminating or improving many of the pathologies that go along with obesity.
We must bear in mind that the overweight or obese patient feels trapped in his or her disease, which becomes chronically progressive. On the other hand, once they have access this type of treatment, patients observe that after surgery they manage to lose weight and sustain that weight loss over time, since they are limited in how much energy they can take in and absorb. So, the aim of the treatment is to enable the patient to find a balance in the management of their own energy.
At the same time, patients can see other types of diseases remit after surgery, like diabetes, which, for specialists, is something else to take into account when evaluating the effectiveness of this type of intervention.